Is it possible to briefly summarize how a commercial plane navigation system operates to a layperson (e.g. a passenger)?
The aircraft takes off, reaches a certain altitude, and then lands perfect on a runway somewhere else.
How does the navigation system affect this?
How do pilots know where to go and where to land?
How do you navigate in your car?
Before you depart, you have a general understanding of which direction you're going.
(the supermarket is to the east of my house, about 3 miles. I believe it will take me about 5 minutes to get there).
When you start driving, you keep your eyes open looking for information and clues.
(The yellow lines on the road denote a two-way street. Certain landmarks are familiar and expected.)
As you proceed, you may refer to your car dashboard to make sure things are as expected
(My speed is 43MPH. I had planned for 45MPH... pretty close. My engine is running at 2,500 RPM, which is appropriate)
You may have advanced instruments as well
(The GPS in my car is telling me to take the next right turn, and go 1/2 mile)
Pilots have pre-flight preparation where they go over a general plan.
(we're going to fly north, on a heading of about 025 for 3 hours. We'll be passing over a large lake, and landing at our destination with a city off to our left)
As they move towards the runway, they look for other airplanes, read the signs around the runway, and refer to their maps.
(I see a sign indicating I'm on taxi-way Bravo, approaching Runway 31. I see yellow markings on the pavement indicating I should get permission before I cross)
Once they take off, they look at their instruments to verify they're going at the expected speed, altitude and direction.
(Altitude is 35,000 feet, as planned. Engines are at the right pressure, and speed is 440 knots, as expected)
They can look out the window for large landmarks, lakes, mountains, cities, etc.
(I'm passing by the mountain I saw on the map. I see the river valley below me, and a large city ahead of me, just like I planned)
They may use advanced services like GPS Navigation, Radar and radio signals to help navigate. (My GPS is showing my position and direction. It says to turn a little to the right to stay on course. The navigation radio says I'm 25 Nautical Miles away from the radio transmitter)
And they can talk to Air Traffic Control who can observe them on radar, and advise them to make adjustments to their course for navigation, and to stay separated from other airplanes.
If they cannot see out the window, navigation does become a bit more complicated, and reliant on Instruments, GPS, Radar and Radio.
But given a very careful plan of "Fly for exactly 31 minutes, at exactly a heading of 027, at exactly a speed of 130Kts", it is pretty remarkable how close the airplane will end up to the intended destination.
That process is called Dead Reckoning. It requires some detailed advanced planning, but isn't that difficult. Combining Dead Reckoning with Instrument flying, and pilots can go through zero-visibility and still come out at the intended location.
Is it possible to briefly summarize how a commercial plane navigation system operates to a layperson (e.g. a passenger)? The aircraft takes off, reaches a certain altitude, and then lands perfect on a runway somewhere else. How does the navigation system affect this? How do pilots know where to go and where to land?
Primary target: An aircraft not reporting mode-C, the only thing the controller has is the return on the radar. When a controller reports a primary target as traffic to other aircraft, the controller does not have the altitude of the target. Given this, I conclude that ATC radar does not have the altitude (angle-up) to the target, and only provides azimuth. So then without the altitude, how does the radar-system know where to put the target laterally on the screen? Example, a radar picks up a target that is 10 miles from the station. If the target is 0 AGL, the proper position would be 10
What is the difference between technical consumption and fuel drain in a fuel calculation system? Both of them reduce the amount of block fuel of aircraft. I assume technical consumption is not equal with trip fuel usage?!
The G1000 has a feature where it can put up a winds aloft arrow/speed in the PFD. I've been sort of wondering how exactly this is determined. My guess is that the aircraft (or the G1000) knows your airspeed via the pitot/static system and heading via the fluxgate/mag compass. Then, it uses your GPS position to figure out where you should be every X seconds given the airspeed and heading. Any difference must be attributable to winds aloft. Does this make sense?
Provided an aircraft with a fly-by-wire system, there are basically two possible choices when it comes deciding how to let the pilots interface with it: rate control / attitude hold: a deflection of the stick will command a certain rate, releasing it will make the system maintain the current attitude. See the Airbus Normal control law. direct control: a deflection of the yoke will directly translate to a deflection of the surfaces, mimicking the "old" mechanical control setup. It is my understanding that this is the design choice of Boeing in its new aircrafts. I do not wish to discuss
In the olden days there used to be a navigation officer in commercial airlines who had the tasks of navigation and radio communication. But, in modern commercial airliners there is no navigation officer. Do the pilot(s) take the additional responsibility of radio communication and navigation? Or is the navigation part now done by onboard computers and systems? If the electronic navigation system fails, are there any backup plans? Are physical maps and a compass then used to determine the direction and position?
An autobrake is a type of automatic wheel-based hydraulic brake system for advanced airplanes. The autobrake is normally enabled during takeoff and landing procedures, when the aircraft's longitudinal deceleration system can be handled by the automated systems of the aircraft itself in order to keep the pilot free to perform other tasks - Wikipedia How does the aircraft "know" when is time to activate the autobrake systems on a rejected takeoff and landing? Does it apply full brake to all the aircraft's wheels? Is it really used by commercial jets?
How does an airline facilitate in-flight calls for mobile phones? I would guess that over open water in flight calls are relayed by an on board link to a communications satellite. Such a system would likely need to track the location of the aircraft. The records from this system could provide tracking information that is not available from other sources.
case, and average case for each location, altitude, and date in the future. I have searched and searched Google to no avail. Where can this wind data be found, and how can it be used in a commercial product? For those of you who don't know what the Boeing winds are, I found this description of their software product on am informal message board (not related to Boeing): PC WindTemp... at a specific location and time may differ appreciably from those computed by PC Windtemp. Therefore, data from PC Windtemp must not be used for flight planning, aircraft dispatch, airborne flight
I worked on Russian Fighter aircraft where both the Rudder Pedals were mechanically interlinked i.e Captain applies force on his pedal than both pedals (Captain & First Officer) move & vice versa. Single Pedal sensor Unit (of course redundant sensors) senses the position and sends it to the Fly-By-Wire Computer for moving the control surfaces. I would like to know if this is true for all aircraft (Fighter/Commercial, Boeing/Airbus, etc.) and if not, what are different implementations? Maybe different sensors for Captain/First Officer, different arch etc. Also on the same lines, how