As I understand it, the FAA certifies certain aircraft types for IFR flight in general. All aircraft of that type are then certified, not something you have to do with each individual aircraft.
What are the minimum requirements for aircraft to be certified for IFR? Is it all location-sensing equipment?
And a bonus: can I get a single aircraft that is only VFR certified to be IFR certified if I add more equipment?
As you say, the FAA certifies an aircraft for certain "kinds of operation". For a normal category airplane certified under 14 CFR 23, it basically says that it must be "established appropriate to the installed equipment":
§23.1525 Kinds of operation.
The kinds of operation authorized (e.g. VFR, IFR, day or night) and the meteorological conditions (e.g. icing) to which the operation of the airplane is limited or from which it is prohibited, must be established appropriate to the installed equipment.
The installed equipment required for IFR flight (beyond that required for VFR flight) is listed in 91.205(d) and is mostly equipment used to communicate with ATC and to maintain control of the airplane when flying without visual reference to the ground (so no navigation equipment is specified):
§91.205 Powered civil aircraft with standard category U.S. airworthiness certificates: Instrument and equipment requirements.
(d) Instrument flight rules. For IFR flight, the following instruments and equipment are required:
(1) Instruments and equipment specified in paragraph (b) of this section, and, for night flight, instruments and equipment specified in paragraph (c) of this section.
(2) Two-way radio communication and navigation equipment suitable for the route to be flown.
(3) Gyroscopic rate-of-turn indicator, except on the following aircraft:
(i) Airplanes with a third attitude instrument system usable through flight attitudes of 360 degrees of pitch and roll and installed in accordance with the instrument requirements prescribed in §121.305(j) of this chapter; and
(ii) Rotorcraft with a third attitude instrument system usable through flight attitudes of ±80 degrees of pitch and ±120 degrees of roll and installed in accordance with §29.1303(g) of this chapter.
(4) Slip-skid indicator.
(5) Sensitive altimeter adjustable for barometric pressure.
(6) A clock displaying hours, minutes, and seconds with a sweep-second pointer or digital presentation.
(7) Generator or alternator of adequate capacity.
(8) Gyroscopic pitch and bank indicator (artificial horizon).
(9) Gyroscopic direction indicator (directional gyro or equivalent).
As far as converting an airplane from VFR to IFR, the Type Certificate Data Sheet (TCDS) must specify that the airplane is designed for IFR flight, and then you could add the missing equipment to make it qualify.
As I understand it, the FAA certifies certain aircraft types for IFR flight in general. All aircraft of that type are then certified, not something you have to do with each individual aircraft. What are the minimum requirements for aircraft to be certified for IFR? Is it all location-sensing equipment? And a bonus: can I get a single aircraft that is only VFR certified to be IFR certified if I add more equipment?
Are there any LSA aircraft that are IFR certified? A LSA would be the perfect private commuter plane for an instrument rated private pilot. If not, what are the most cost effective airplanes that are IFR certified? Is there anything cheaper than a C172? Just to be clear: I am asking about aircraft that are IFR certified, meaning that they can be flown IFR in IMC conditions. I am also aware that there is a huge difference between different countries with regard to aircraft certification so my question is mainly about the U.S.
FAR Part 91, Appendix G, Section 2 says: (c) Altitude-keeping equipment: All aircraft. To approve an aircraft group or a nongroup aircraft, the Administrator must find that the aircraft meets the following requirements: ... (2) The aircraft must be equipped with at least one automatic altitude control system that controls the aircraft altitude Note that it does not say that it must be engaged, or even operative. Simply "equipped", and also that this is to approve an aircraft for RVSM. From what I can find, there is no operational requirement for the autopilot
If I were to redo my avionics to only include a WAAS GPS unit and two comm radios, would anything prevent me from operating IFR? 14 CFR 91.205(d) only states that my airplane must have: (2) Two-way radio communication and navigation equipment suitable for the route to be flown. I'm aware that this is not the most bulletproof way to fly hard IFR. In this case, assume that the aircraft is primarily used for currency/proficiency and the occasional light IFR flight.
I know that to be allowed to fly an aircraft as to be certified by an agency and that this one is not the same for European or American (for instance) aircrafts. What are the different steps that an aircraft designed to fly in Europe has to go through in order to be certified? Proof on the paper of some features? Ground tests (which one)? Flight tests (which one)?
14 CFR 61.55 says: ... (d) A person may receive a second-in-command pilot type rating for an aircraft after satisfactorily completing the second-in-command familiarization training requirements under paragraph (b) of this section in that type of aircraft provided the training was completed within the 12 calendar months before the month of application for the SIC pilot type rating. The person must comply with the following application and pilot certification procedures: ... (6) The applicant must appear in person at a FAA Flight Standards District Office
If I want to take an airplane to Europe, what additional aircraft equipment is required beyond the US requirements? For instance, I know that we need 8.33Khz spacing radios, what else is there? Also, I heard that it will be changing in 2015 to have additional requirements. What will those be, and will there be any exceptions (ie, can we obtain a waiver)?
Hi – Here’s the scenario: The flight starts night VFR, with broken ceiling at destination (class C airspace) and expected to improve according to the pre-flight abbreviated briefing. I'm IFR...): a). do I ask approach directly for the IFR clearance, and what is the officially sanctionned phraseology? Also: do I have to cancel IFR when I’m on the ground/see the runway i.e. is the clearance... on the ground/view of rwy)? c). other? BTW: I did read How do you request a "pop up" IFR clearance? . In my scenario I have the time to call FSS, there is no emergency, I'm on flight following
Requirements for 'complex' airplane seem to vary between regulators and between pilots, so let's have this settled once and for all. What is the definition of a 'complex' airplane as defined by FAA and EASA?
Looking around on the internet you can still find a lot of aged aircraft such as the 727,737-200,a300/310, DC9/MD8X and DC-10 that are still being used as freighters or in "poorer" airlines. I suppose a lot of pilots that were certified on these aircraft are getting older and retiring. Would it make sense for a younger guy to get certified for these airplanes rather than running for a newer aircraft certifications where the competition would be harsher in order to pursue a career? I suppose that these aircraft will still have service time left as converted freighters thus extending