FAR 61.57 says that you need to have completed three takeoffs and landings to a full stop in order to carry passengers at night. However, you only need three touch-and-gos in order to carry passengers during the day.
Why the difference?
Is there some rationale for this? Are full-stop landings considered safer during the night?
There are three really convincing arguments I've heard for this - I'm not sure which is "correct" and explains the FAA's logic, but personally I suspect it's a little bit of each.
Argument 1: Night landings are "special".
A night landing is definitely different from a day landing - there's much less of a sight picture in the flare unless your airport is in a really bright area or you have a bright moon (and even then it's "different").
If all you're doing is tapping your wheels on the ground and quickly accelerating back to takeoff speed you're missing a lot of what a landing is - bringing the nose down, decelerating to a safe taxi speed, and leaving the runway under control.
Which conveniently brings us to...
Argument 2: "You gotta learn how to taxi all over again!"
That's something my instructor told me, and I didn't really understand what he meant until I was in the plane. Airports are really dark and it's hard to find your way around the taxiways at night. Personally I think a big part of this requirement is the intent that you taxi off the runway and make your way back to the end to shoot another circuit. The hardest thing about my night training - aside from finding the darn airports was taxiing around without getting lost.
(Of course the regs don't say anything about "Taxi off the runway" - they just say "full stop". You can satisfy the legal requirement with "stop-and-go" landings, but there's a nagging voice in my head that says you're not really "getting current" if that's all you do...)
Argument 3: It slows your procedures down, which makes you safer.
Touch-and-Go landings are kinda dangerous if you think about them - Bring the plane in for a landing (which is already a lot of work). Now as soon as all your wheels are on the ground make a mental judgment as to whether you have enough runway to take off from given your current position & rolling start, if so retract your flaps to an appropriate takeoff setting, cram the throttle back in, and take off again..
When you look at them that way it's a bit odd that we have students do them (and there's more than one CFI around on the internet who says it's a lousy teaching tool).
Adding "Oh yeah, and it's dark out!" to that already difficult and dangerous procedure above is just begging for an accident - especially in a retractable gear aircraft (gear lever, flaps lever, and what happens if you miss in the dark cockpit?).
FAR 61.57 says that you need to have completed three takeoffs and landings to a full stop in order to carry passengers at night. However, you only need three touch-and-gos in order to carry passengers during the day. Why the difference? Is there some rationale for this? Are full-stop landings considered safer during the night?
In a full motion Level C or D simulator like those used by the airlines and for jet type ratings: How should a pilot log the simulator time in their logbook? I.e. Can you log: Total Time Instrument Time Time in Type Cross Country Time Night Time Landings (including night landings) Dual given/received Anything else?
!) said a few times that practice, knowledge and currency are vital — but as long as you got the entry right (following which you can fly to the ground) and executed at least a decent attempt at the flare and cushion, you would survive. Is this a correct take on the survivability of an autorotation? Do fatalities arise primarily from errors during the autorotation entry or flare? While you might not get to use the machine again, and you might spend some time in hospital, you would live to fly another day. I am assuming a reasonable place on dry land is available to finally come to rest
dynamics of an engine cooling and then reheating, and partially because full takeoff power is used. The "usual" time that you log a cycle is when an engine is started and the aircraft then takes off (using full rated takeoff power), but what about unusual situations like: Engine shutdown and restarted in flight Engine started, aircraft takes off, and then returns for a low pass or a touch and go: Would this be two cycles (does it depend on the amount of power used during the touch and go?)? Engine started and then shut down without a flight
FAR 61.57 (a) requires that one must make 3 takeoffs and landings within the preceding 90 days in order to carry passengers. Does a "crash landing" count for the 61.57 currency? By "crash landing" I mean a landing on which an incident/accident occurs under the NTSB definitions. For example, if I'm in the circuit to gain 61.57 currency, and on my 3rd landing attempt, I crash the aircraft into a tree well short of the runway. Would I then be allowed to go rent another aircraft and carry a passenger?
According to Airbus: ‐ After the flight crew selects reverse thrust, they must perform a full stop landing. Does it really make sense to have this limitation, and why? What happens if you realise there's not enough space to land, and you've still got adequate speed?
An autobrake is a type of automatic wheel-based hydraulic brake system for advanced airplanes. The autobrake is normally enabled during takeoff and landing procedures, when the aircraft's longitudinal deceleration system can be handled by the automated systems of the aircraft itself in order to keep the pilot free to perform other tasks - Wikipedia How does the aircraft "know" when is time to activate the autobrake systems on a rejected takeoff and landing? Does it apply full brake to all the aircraft's wheels? Is it really used by commercial jets?
In As the Pro Flies, John R. Hoyt writes (pages 41-42): Suppose we have to land in high, gusty winds. That's what happened to Pilot Z, who once landed his plane during such conditions with his flaps down. After the wheels were on the runway he relaxed, never realizing that a plane is not landed until the switches are cut. Because he still had airspeed and because full flaps lowered..., a condition aptly described as dis-gusted. He would have dropped back on the runway, had not an alert co-pilot opened the throttles and saved both the day and the landing gear. He goes
and those who really need to work during the flight). The enclosed space would inherently reduce some of the risks of passengers being thrown around in turbulence or an emergency landing; safety belts...The airlines are always trying to jam more passengers into each plane. I'm smaller than today's average, and I'm still often uncomfortable in a standard Economy seat. It occurred to me that in the current design, there's a great deal of space wasted over the passengers' heads. And that many of us passengers already do our best to sleep through flights. Hence my question: Is there any reason
EASA requires pilots to log night time and night landings seperate in the personal logbook. Now I'm not sure in which period of time a landing is a night landing and flight time is night flight time. I would appreciate your answer, mabe also with a trustworthy source.