I don't know if this also applies to the U.S. or just to Europe, but in Europe the civilian airspace is frequently used by military jets. On numerous occasions I've seen F-16's and other fighter jets using the same airspace I was flying in (both controlled and uncontrolled)
According to the regulations, we should "see and avoid" other traffic but does that rule apply when encountering these fast military jets? Let's face it: there's no way you can see and avoid a fighter jet approaching at +400kts.
Are there specific regulations covering this? Who's at fault when a midair collision occurs? (sadly it has happened in the past)
Yes, both pilots are required to see and avoid at all times when operating in VMC conditions. Typically the military pilots have radar used to pickup other aircraft that can help them, but ultimately it still comes down to looking outside.
We have military training routes charted here in the US that are used by military aircraft when operating at high speeds, and pilot should be especially vigilant when operating in the vicinity of one of these routes. Use all available information: Get flight following and contact the frequency on the chart for current operational information, and above all keep an eye out for them!
The Aeronautical Chart Users Guide shows an example of how they chart it on VFR Charts:
Military Training Routes (MTRs) are shown on Sectionals and TACs. They are identified by the route designator: . Route designators are shown in solid black on the route centerline, positioned along the route for continuity. The designator IR or VR is not repeated when two or more routes are established over the same airspace, e.g., IR201- 205-227. Routes numbered 001 to 099 are shown as IR1 or VR99, eliminating the initial zeros. Direction of flight along the route is indicated by small arrowheads adjacent to and in conjunction with each route designator.
The following note appears on Sectionals and TACs covering the conterminous United States.
There are IFR (IR) and VFR (VR) routes as follows: Route identification: a. Routes at or below 1500’ AGL (with no segment above 1500’) are identified by four-digit numbers; e.g., VR1007, etc. These routes are generally developed for flight under Visual Flight Rules. b. Routes above 1500’ AGL (some segments of these routes may be below 1500’) are identified by three or fewer digit numbers; e.g., IR21, VR302, etc. These routes are developed for flight under Instrument Flight Rules.
MTRs can vary in width from 4 to 16 miles. Detailed route width information is available in the Flight Information Publication (FLIP) AP/1B (a DoD publication), or in the Digital Aeronautical Chart Supplement (DACS) produced by AeroNav Products. Special Military Activity areas are indicated on the Sectionals by a boxed note in black type. The note contains radio frequency information for obtaining area activity status.
On IFR charts, they are similar:
MILITARY TRAINING ROUTES (MTRs)
Military Training Routes (MTRs) are routes established for the conduct of low-altitude, high-speed military flight training (generally below 10,000 feet MSL at airspeeds in excess of 250 knots Indicated Air Speed). These routes are depicted in brown on Enroute Low Altitude Charts, and are not shown on inset charts or on IFR Enroute High Altitude Charts. Enroute Low Altitude Charts depict all IR (IFR Military Training Route) and VR (VFR Military Training Route) routes, except those VRs that are entirely at or below 1,500 feet AGL. Military Training Routes are identified by designators (IR-107, VR-134) which are shown in brown on the route centerline. Arrows are shown to indicate the direction of flight along the route. The width of the route determines the width of the line that is plotted on the chart:
Route segments with a width of 5 NM or less, both sides of the centerline, are shown by a .02” line.
Route segments with a width greater than 5 NM, either or both sides of the centerline, are shown by a .035” line.
MTRs for particular chart pairs (ex. L1/2, etc.) are alphabetically, then numerically tabulated. The tabulation includes MTR type and unique ident and altitude range.
As far as who is at fault, it is a joint responsibility so everybody would be in most cases.
It is both parties responsibility to see-and-avoid, but it does help to know where you are more likely to find high speed military activity and high performance maneuvering to aid you in seeing and avoiding.
Military operations in the US are typically confined to military training routes (MTR), military operations areas (MOA), restricted airspace and prohibited airspace.
The MTRs are low altitude, high speed routes and are charted on sectional charts so you know to be extra vigilant around them or to just avoid them altogether.
Military operation areas or MOAs are charted and are big boxes with ceiling and floor altitudes. GA aircraft can query ATC if these are active and in any case they can fly into them. If a GA aircraft penetrates and active MOA, the military activity is typically stopped until you leave. General rule of thumb is to just not go there.
Restricted areas are only accessible to you when cold, so there will not be military activity there if you allowed to be there.
Prohibited airspace may not have military activity before you show up, but certainly will after you do, and you might get to watch an F16 attempt slow flight and form up on your wing. Remember your intercept procedures for this one.
Any military activity outside of this will generally be typical enroute flying at altitude. You will occasionally hear ATC coordinating mid-air refueling but that won't be something you have to worry about.
I don't know if this also applies to the U.S. or just to Europe, but in Europe the civilian airspace is frequently used by military jets. On numerous occasions I've seen F-16's and other fighter jets using the same airspace I was flying in (both controlled and uncontrolled) According to the regulations, we should "see and avoid" other traffic but does that rule apply when encountering these fast military jets? Let's face it: there's no way you can see and avoid a fighter jet approaching at +400kts. Are there specific regulations covering this? Who's at fault when a midair collision occurs
So every once in awhile I see an article talking about the air traffic control strikes in Europe like this one: European air traffic controllers to strike. How does this affect me if I am flying to Europe? Do they just close the doors and all airspace becomes uncontrolled airspace? I'm guessing not, but that's what I envision when I hear that! What happens if they go on strike while I'm over the ocean on my way there?
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I was watching some police programme on TV the other day, with an air chase that had the police helicopter crew on their toes; having to perform a lot of sudden maneuvers. How do police, or HEMS (medical), helicopters communicate with ATC? I presume they get priority, but do ATC clear other traffic out of the way? Is there a comms person/navigator on-board? Do they simply "see and avoid"?
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As far as my knowledge goes: There is a 250 kt speed limit under the altitude of 10.000 feet. This screenshot seem to show an aircraft below 10.000 feet and traveling at 285 kts at the time i captured the screenshot. I don't think this aircraft posed any threats to other aviation traffic as there is no other traffic in the airspace. I was just curious. EDIT: Shortly after: I see this aircraft taking off from the same airport. Doing the same thing as the first plane.
During visual flight conditions, when you see another aircraft in your path, you should strive to avoid hitting it. In shipping there are standard international rules about which way boats should turn in order to avoid each other. Are there similar rules in aviation?
An autobrake is a type of automatic wheel-based hydraulic brake system for advanced airplanes. The autobrake is normally enabled during takeoff and landing procedures, when the aircraft's longitudinal deceleration system can be handled by the automated systems of the aircraft itself in order to keep the pilot free to perform other tasks - Wikipedia How does the aircraft "know" when is time to activate the autobrake systems on a rejected takeoff and landing? Does it apply full brake to all the aircraft's wheels? Is it really used by commercial jets?
I'm from Brazil, and here we use the West/East rule, so we use an odd flight level when we fly between 0/360 - 179, and when we fly between 180 - 359 we fly in an even flight level. But what should you do in other countries? Where I can find those rules? I've heard that in Europe it's totally different, and that in some countries in Asia they use meters, instead of feet. Where can I find this information?
I was flying a Fokker 100 a few months back over central Europe. We had probably just reached cruising altitude when the cabin temperature suddenly skyrocketed without reason, with the air coming out probably around 30 degrees (Celsius). After complaints by fellow travellers it became cooler. Is there any reason why it would do this? I guess the pilots might have done it, but I see no reason for it, so could the aircraft have done it on its own accord?