I've read a lot of NTSB crash reports regarding small, GA aircraft (just trying to figure out what went wrong and what to avoid.) There seem to be a lot of reports that talk about "low altitude high speed stalls" happening on approach.
What is a high speed stall, and how is it created? What is the best way to avoid one? As they seem to cause a lot of GA accidents...
A "high speed stall" is a stall that occurs at an airspeed higher than normal due to a higher load factor (g loading).
The "high speed stall" is more commonly known to pilots as an accelerated stall. When an aircraft is in a bank or when pulling back on the yoke quickly, the wing has to create additional lift to support the aircraft since the load factor has increased. This increases the angle of attack beyond the critical angle of attack (the point where the wings can no longer produce enough lift to support the airplane) and the airplane will stall even though it is above the normal stall speed for the airplane.
Let's say that we are flying an airplane that has a "normal" stall speed of 60 KIAS. If we start a 60 degree banked turn, this will increase the load factor on the airplane by two (2g) and will increase our stall speed by 41% to 85 KIAS.
A fairly common cause of this type of accident is when a pilot overshoots the runway centerline during the turn from base to final and steepens the bank angle in order to "turn faster" to get back on final. Because the stall speed goes up, they can stall the airplane even though they normally never even come close at their current airspeed.
Instead, they should have just maintained the current bank angle that they had (instead of steepening it) and continued the turn back to re-intercept final using normal maneuvers. If that couldn't be done in the amount of altitude/distance available, then simply go around and come back to try again (while making the proper wind correction in the turns this time).
I've read a lot of NTSB crash reports regarding small, GA aircraft (just trying to figure out what went wrong and what to avoid.) There seem to be a lot of reports that talk about "low altitude high speed stalls" happening on approach. What is a high speed stall, and how is it created? What is the best way to avoid one? As they seem to cause a lot of GA accidents...
When I took delivery of a new Cessna 182T last year, I did a test flight for certification purposes. During the test flight we had to perform a power off stall but that didn't go as planned as it was simply impossible to stall. What happened is this: when the airspeed dropped well below the power off stall speed we simply started to sink slowly with a nose-high attitude at about 35 KIAS. This "mushing" went on for what seemed ages before I eventually applied power and pushed the nose down to gain airspeed again. We tried it again after that and the same thing happened. I had an instructor
Antennas sticking out of an aircraft obviously increase profile drag, but the folks who design antennas have done a lot to improve aerodynamics: High performance aircraft can have antennas mounted inside of fiberglass components like wingtips, and flush-mounte antennas are available for transponders and DME equipment. For slower light GA aircraft more aerodynamic antennas are also available... 250 MPH and isn't generally covered in antennas, how significant is the antenna drag on a typical light GA airframe? For example, would stripping the ~6 pounds of antenna drag from your average
Are there any sites similar to SkyVector (US-based) for GA aviation maps in Australia? I understand that Air Services Australia has miscellaneous single-purposes maps available, but they seem to be mostly airport diagrams and approach procedures. I'm looking for GA VFR maps. If the only thing available is SkyVector's world maps (of Australia), how accurate are they?
I was watching some police programme on TV the other day, with an air chase that had the police helicopter crew on their toes; having to perform a lot of sudden maneuvers. How do police, or HEMS (medical), helicopters communicate with ATC? I presume they get priority, but do ATC clear other traffic out of the way? Is there a comms person/navigator on-board? Do they simply "see and avoid"?
I imagine that the tires on commercial jets wear out pretty fast with all those squealing landings as the tire suddenly has to spin up from zero to the speed of landing. 2 questions: How many landings does any average commercial airliner tire last before it is discarded? Before landing, why not have a small motor assembly on the landing gear to spin up the tires to the correct speed? Surely this would avoid the degrading tire burn. The tire might last a lot longer and might even offset the cost of the motor assembly.
Everyone says that the angle of attack is what determines a stall, not the speed. I understand the theory and understand that it is separation of the airflow that matters for stalling. However, I don’t understand, in a practical sense, let’s say you’re in a Citabria going at 100 knots. If you pull up extremely fast, you can get a high angle of attack, beyond what you’d need to stall at 60 knots, yet you wouldn’t stall straight away. If you stayed at that angle of attack, you’d quickly slow, then stall. But if I’m right that you wouldn’t stall straight away, then it seems like the angle
Inspired by a discussion in chat. Most GA piston singles are powered by either Lycoming or Continental engines. The engine designs used by both manufacturers are broadly similar (4-cycle, horizontally-opposed, gasoline-powered, air-cooled), and they're both generally available with either carburetors or fuel injection, but I know they're not "identical products". What are some of the differences between the designs used by the two manufacturers, and what practical implications do those choices have for pilots?
I always wondered if it was possible for planes and other aircraft to leave the Earth's atmosphere. Normal commercial transport airplanes can fly pretty high, but then they need air to get the speed boost from. Reactive engines seem like a better idea, but I don't know how much importance air has for them. Is it possible to get to space from Earth's surface using a non-rocket aircraft?
Let's say we have a Cessna 150 or some other lightweight two seater and no chance to land with head wind for whatever reason. We're trying to land with a constant tailwind of 7 knots. I would try to land as close to stall speed as possible to compensate the tailwind. So much for the theory. In reality, the wind is not constant. If I'm close to stall, dying wind will give me trouble. What's a general good approach for such situations? What configuration would you choose? If the runway is very long, one can just go faster. But often, runways are rather short.