Is there a legal definition of a "cycle" on a jet engine?
We must log the cycles, and some maintenance is determined by cycles. From my understanding, this is partially because of the thermal dynamics of an engine cooling and then reheating, and partially because full takeoff power is used.
The "usual" time that you log a cycle is when an engine is started and the aircraft then takes off (using full rated takeoff power), but what about unusual situations like:
A cycle is a start to a shutdown. Lets say there is a flight that is loaded with pax, bags, and fuel. They push back and start both engines since the weather is good and their at an outstation. As they taxi to the departure runway, BAM, ground calls up saying there is a groundstop for the hub and its going to be about 30 minutes. The flight pulls into some empty ramps space, and shuts down both engines. Groundstop lifts, both engines started again, and the flight departs. After landing, pulling into the gate, and shutting down the engines, we can say that for this flight, each engine went through two cycles. ALL of this info is logged and maintenance can access it. With some of the newer engines and higher service packages, OEM
According to the FAA in AC33.70-1:
(b) The applicant should validate and maintain the accuracy of the engine flight cycle over the life of the design. The extent of the validation depends on the approach taken in the development of the engine flight cycle. For example, a conservative flight cycle where all the variables are placed at the most life damaging value would require minimum validation. A flight cycle that attempts to accurately represent the actual flight profile, but is inherently less conservative, would require more extensive validation. Applicants may apply further refinements to the engine flight cycle when significant field operational data is obtained.
dynamics of an engine cooling and then reheating, and partially because full takeoff power is used. The "usual" time that you log a cycle is when an engine is started and the aircraft then takes off (using full rated takeoff power), but what about unusual situations like: Engine shutdown and restarted in flight Engine started, aircraft takes off, and then returns for a low pass or a touch and go: Would this be two cycles (does it depend on the amount of power used during the touch and go?)? Engine started and then shut down without a flight
When I took delivery of a new Cessna 182T last year, I did a test flight for certification purposes. During the test flight we had to perform a power off stall but that didn't go as planned as it was simply impossible to stall. What happened is this: when the airspeed dropped well below the power off stall speed we simply started to sink slowly with a nose-high attitude at about 35 KIAS. This "mushing" went on for what seemed ages before I eventually applied power and pushed the nose down to gain airspeed again. We tried it again after that and the same thing happened. I had an instructor
In a full motion Level C or D simulator like those used by the airlines and for jet type ratings: How should a pilot log the simulator time in their logbook? I.e. Can you log: Total Time Instrument Time Time in Type Cross Country Time Night Time Landings (including night landings) Dual given/received Anything else?
An autobrake is a type of automatic wheel-based hydraulic brake system for advanced airplanes. The autobrake is normally enabled during takeoff and landing procedures, when the aircraft's longitudinal deceleration system can be handled by the automated systems of the aircraft itself in order to keep the pilot free to perform other tasks - Wikipedia How does the aircraft "know" when is time to activate the autobrake systems on a rejected takeoff and landing? Does it apply full brake to all the aircraft's wheels? Is it really used by commercial jets?
This is what I know: $V_1$ is the takeoff airspeed after which the aircraft must take off, no matter what happens after $V_1$ has been reached. That's the easy part (I think). $V_R$ is the rotation airspeed Are there any other $V$-speeds? What I'm specifically curious about: Is $V_1$ related to runway length? Is there an absolute maximum $V_1$ for each aircraft type? If so, can it vary...? (this is the case for most light aircraft, but I guess the whole concept is not applicable in that case) What exactly is $V_2$? Is there a $V_3$? (and so on) Anything else worth knowing about $V$-speeds?
Generally speaking, What programming language is used in aviation for (ATC Radio, Radar, ILS, Auto-pilot and on-board avionics)? Is there a standard enforced by ICAO? Does every plane manufacturer use the programming language they like as long as it's reliable and it goes through testing? I remember watching a documentary on YouTube last year about aviation and it said something about the EU, after WWII, started making standards for aviation systems inside Europe. I will link the video if I can find it
are used to communicate between the aircraft and its base. Various types of messages are possible, for example, relating to fuel consumption, engine performance data, aircraft position, in addition to free... pinged to track an aircraft's position and heading? Would this require any intervention by the pilots? (posted separately) Is this system standard on commercial airliners? What data do Airlines collect...An aircraft's Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System uses line of sight HF via ground stations or satellites to communicate with its base station. This system allows for three
It seems that you would use full power for takeoffs, but when I have heard of airline pilots using less than full power on takeooff. Wouldn't it be safer to use full throttle?
When it comes to operating an aircraft, what are the practical differences between a turbocharged engine and a supercharged engine? I'm aware of the mechanics - turbochargers being exhaust-driven, while superchargers are mechanically driven - so I'm looking for the differences in how pilots need to treat the systems: Do power settings need to be set differently? Are temperatures more... they are constructed? Will a supercharged engine have a lower TBO because of the mechanical aspects of the system, or will it be the same as a turbocharged engine?
The alpha vane is an external probe used to measure the angle of attack. I have been trying to understand how exactly it works, but I can't find any clear explanation or simulation. Is the vane static or dynamic i.e. does it rotate along its central axis? Given that it has a significant surface area, I think that it would either: Rotate because of the force/drag exerted by the airflow, and give an angle of attack proportional or equal to its angle of rotation Measure the force being exerted on it via a force sensor embedded in the surface Is either of these correct? In short, how