14 CFR 121 and 135 certificate holders are required to maintain operational control of their flight operations:
§135.77 Responsibility for operational control.
Each certificate holder is responsible for operational control and shall list, in the manual required by §135.21, the name and title of each person authorized by it to exercise operational control.
What exactly is "Operational Control"?
Operational control is defined in 8900.1 Volume 3, Chapter 25 as:
Operational control functions include, but are not limited to:
- Preflight planning;
- For part 121 operations, preparation and dissemination of dispatch/flight releases;
- Canceling a flight due to potential hazardous or unsafe conditions;
- Ensuring that only those operations authorized by the OpSpecs are conducted;
- Ensuring that only crewmembers who are trained and qualified in accordance with the applicable regulations are assigned to conduct a flight;
- For part 121 operations, ensuring that no flight is started unless it has been authorized by a dispatcher or person authorized to exercise operational control in accordance with §§ 121.593, 121.595, or 121.597, as applicable;
- Ensuring that crewmembers are in compliance with flight and duty time limitations and rest requirements prior to departing on a flight;
- Designating a pilot in command (PIC) and, where applicable, a second in command (SIC) for each flight;
- Providing the personnel who perform operational control functions (PIC, dispatcher, etc.) with access to all necessary information for the safe conduct of the flight (for example, weather, Notices to Airmen (NOTAM), airport aeronautical data (analysis), and inoperable instruments and equipment);
- Specifying the conditions under which a flight may be dispatched or released (weather minimums, flight planning, airworthiness of aircraft, aircraft loading, and fuel requirements);
- For part 121 operations, ensuring that when the conditions, limitations, and authorizations specified in a dispatch or flight release cannot be met, the flight is either cancelled, delayed, rerouted, or diverted;
- For part 121 operations, ensuring that each flight is conducted in accordance with the conditions and limitations of the dispatch or flight release;
- Ensuring that each flight is operated in accordance with the limitations of the MEL and CDL;
- For part 121 operations, monitoring the progress of each flight and initiating timely actions when the flight cannot be completed as planned, including diverting or terminating a flight;
- For part 135 operations, locating a flight for which a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) flight plan (FP) has not been filed;
- For part 121 operations, ensuring rapid and reliable communications in accordance with §§ 121.99 and 121.122, as applicable;
- Restricting or suspending operations in accordance with §§ 121.551, 121.553, or 135.69 as applicable; and
- Exercising the emergency authority described in §§ 121.557, 121.559, and 135.19, as applicable.
These functions are normally performed by a variety of people:
Operational control is implemented by the above people and must hit all of the bullets in the definition above. This means that to exercise operational control you must always know where your planes are, you must determine who flies them, plan those flights, ensure the pilots and aircraft are legal, ensure everyone is trained for the operations performed and to always be able to communicate with your aircraft.
There is also mention of Operational Control Systems, which require that any flight operated by the carrier is dispatched, followed and can be located at all times. These functions are normally carried out by the Dispatcher assigned to your flight.
Further reading beyond the 8900.1 can be found in AC 120-101 for 121 ops.
14 CFR 121 and 135 certificate holders are required to maintain operational control of their flight operations: §135.77 Responsibility for operational control. Each certificate holder is responsible for operational control and shall list, in the manual required by §135.21, the name and title of each person authorized by it to exercise operational control. 121.533, 121.535, and 121.537 contain similar requirements for 121 carriers. What exactly is "Operational Control"?
in which the crewmember is to serve since the beginning of the 12th calendar month before that service. This section does not apply to a certificate holder that uses only one pilot in the certificate holder's operations. Before that though, 14 CFR 135.323 states: §135.323 - Training program: General. ... (b) Whenever a crewmember who is required to take recurrent training under...Most 135 training/testing says something like this: §135.343 Crewmember initial and recurrent training requirements. No certificate holder may use a person, nor may any person serve
StallSpin's answer on the recent question about VFR traffic patterns has got me thinking about the "Remarks" section of the Airport/Facility Directory. We are all taught in training to review the AFD entry for airports we intend to visit (part of FAR 91.103's "become familiar with all available information" requirement), and to comply with any restrictions noted - typically things like "no touch-and-go landings", "Standard traffic pattern required of all aircraft", "Prior Permission Required for jet aircraft", etc. Aside from it being The Right Thing To Do, and avoiding the possibility
club's 1980 Piper Archer (PA-28-181). I have well over §61.109's 40 hours in the Warrior alone, and only ~10 hours in the Archer. I have a separate club checkout and CFI solo endorsement for each, they're pretty similar anyway—they're even both the same ATC type (P28A)—but they aren't the same model. Here's the catch: Form 8710, the "Airman Certificate and/or Rating Application", asks... plane was fine, and I can't find any Part 61 regulations that are specific to experience in one make/model aside from adding an experimental aircraft as part §61.63(h)(1), which is what I assume
— (1) Category A: Speed less than 91 knots. (2) Category B: Speed 91 knots or more but less than 121 knots. (3) Category C: Speed 121 knots or more but less than 141 knots. (4) Category D: Speed 141 knots or more but less than 166 knots. (5) Category E: Speed 166 knots or more. So an aircraft category never changes because it is always Vref at max landing weight. What... than full flaps due to a failure (or any other operational reason). Which minimums do you use then?
135.293(a)(7)(iii) requires that pilots be tested on: (iii) Operating in or near thunderstorms (including best penetrating altitudes), turbulent air (including clear air turbulence), icing, hail, and other potentially hazardous meteorological conditions; So what are the best penetrating altitudes when forced to operate in a thunderstorm? The most obvious answer is to stay out of it in the first place, but the reg requires us to come up with an answer....
14 CFR 135, Subpart F contains the rest requirements for Part 135 operations. The rest requirement for 1 and 2 pilot unscheduled crews (typical) comes from: 135.267(d) Each assignment under paragraph (b) of this section must provide for at least 10 consecutive hours of rest during the 24-hour period that precedes the planned completion time of the assignment. What does the FAA consider rest and what actions by the company will interrupt the required rest?
FAR Part 91, Appendix G, Section 2 says: (c) Altitude-keeping equipment: All aircraft. To approve an aircraft group or a nongroup aircraft, the Administrator must find that the aircraft meets the following requirements: ... (2) The aircraft must be equipped with at least one automatic altitude control system that controls the aircraft altitude Note that it does not say that it must be engaged, or even operative. Simply "equipped", and also that this is to approve an aircraft for RVSM. From what I can find, there is no operational requirement for the autopilot
From what I understand, whether or not a flight is classified as private or commercial in the eyes of US Customs and Border Patrol (CBP) has nothing to do with the Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) flight rules that they are operating under. For instance, I understand that I can legally be operating under FAR Part 91 and still be a commercial flight in the eyes of CBP. What then is the determining factor?
Part 135 and (I believe) Part 121 operations all have a requirement to use a source of weather that has been approved by the U.S. National Weather Service: §135.213 Weather reports and forecasts. (a) Whenever a person operating an aircraft under this part is required to use a weather report or forecast, that person shall use that of the U.S. National Weather Service, a source approved by the U.S. National Weather Service, or a source approved by the Administrator. However, for operations under VFR, the pilot in command may, if such a report is not available, use weather