Non-precision instrument approaches generally have altitude restrictions which get lower when you get closer to the airport. I always figured these restrictions were AMSL using the current altimeter setting, not compensating for temperature.
Some have heard the mnemonic that mountains are higher come wintertime, which basically means that colder weather make your altimeter read higher than you actually are (or, as most pilots prefer to think, you're lower than what your altimeter reads)
Have a look at this VOR approach into Newark
Most altitude restrictions are a minimum level, so you're free to fly higher if it's a particularly cold day. But have a look at LOCKI intersection, the final approach fix. That's at 1500 ft, not at-or-above. At -40, this will put you around 1100 ft above ground level. Although I don't see any obstructions that high during this segment of the approach, as far as I know instrument approaches are supposed to guarantee a 500 ft obstacle clearance, do procedures using this kind of restrictions have a minimum temperature?
There are procedures with temperature restrictions, related to altitude constraints. An example is Innsbruck:
The text in the red box says:
Procedure N/A below AD temp -7°C
Non-precision instrument approaches generally have altitude restrictions which get lower when you get closer to the airport. I always figured these restrictions were AMSL using the current altimeter setting, not compensating for temperature. Some have heard the mnemonic that mountains are higher come wintertime, which basically means that colder weather make your altimeter read higher than you actually are (or, as most pilots prefer to think, you're lower than what your altimeter reads) Have a look at this VOR approach into Newark Most altitude restrictions are a minimum level, so
When coming in on an instrument approach at a nontowered airport, the approach/center controller will clear you for the approach and approve your frequency change to the CTAF. Once you're cleared for a particular approach and have changed frequencies, if you later decide you need to deviate from the planned approach (i.e. sidestep or circle instead of straight-in) do you need to get a revised clearance from the approach controller or is clearance for sidestep or circling implied?
are two examples of situations where it would be very useful, and both are real life clearances that I have gotten multiple times: Example 1 - KASE Clearance: N1234, Cleared for the VOR/DME-C approach, cleared to land runway 15 If you follow the step downs until the final approach fix (ZIGBU) you will be at 2,983 ft. above the runway (10,820 ft. MSL) with 2.9 miles to go (9.61 degree descent angle). To put this in perspective, on a normal 3 degree descent, you should be at 870 ft. above the runway so are over 2,000 ft. high on less than a 3 mile final. Could you begin the circle
accidents that start high above the ground. Thus, you usually have a few minutes before you're going to hit the ground and there's often only 1 or 2 passengers (rather than 100). Plus, you're usually already... airliners happen on take off and landing, and there is no time to parachute. In order to get to a position where 100+ people can successfully jump out, you'd most likely need to descend some 20,000 ft and then maintain straight and level for a good 3 to 5 minutes once you got past 12,000 (so people have oxygen to breathe when they jump). And if you can descend and maintain level flight, you might
As we all know from our instrument training, the MOCA is: MINIMUM OBSTRUCTION CLEARANCE ALTITUDE (MOCA)- The lowest published altitude in effect between radio fixes on VOR airways, off-airway... of a VOR. Whereas the MEA is: MINIMUM EN ROUTE IFR ALTITUDE (MEA)- The lowest published altitude between radio fixes which assures acceptable navigational signal coverage and meets obstacle... miles from a VOR. Therefore, when you're within those 22 miles, there's no practical difference between a MEA and a MOCA, right? If that's true, why is there an 1800 foot difference between
So let's assume that I'm the sole manipulator of the flight controls in an aircraft in which I'm rated and that I fly an instrument approach. What weather does the FAA require (assuming that I'm not wearing a view limiting device) in order to log the approach for currency requirements? For instance, if I am cleared for an ILS in visual conditions, can I log it? What if I start the approach in the clouds and break out at 1,500 ft and continue the approach? 1,000 ft? Before/after the outer marker? 150 feet above minimums? I think that you get the idea....
(hypothetically), just winding back the altimeter pressure reading to appear to be at a lower altitude? So to summarize: How are airspace violations detected: What data input is used? If Mode C reading is used, is it based on pilot's altimeter? Would winding back the altimeter make a plane report a lower altitude? ...Are airspace violations (e.g. entry to class B without clearance) based on primary radar and/or Mode C transponder, or something else? I read that Mode C altitude is based on pressure altitude, i.e.
I have some questions about circle-to-land approaches. If we have the runway in sight above MDA, do we need to continue to descend to MDA on downwind? Can we just keep fly like a traffic pattern until abeam aiming point and then start the descent? Similarly, If during circle to land approach we lose the runway on downwind but we are above MDA, do we need go missed still toward to the runway? Since we are above MDA we should still have obstacle clearance....
I once had a traffic controller give me a hard time about how I requested IFR clearance once in the air. I had previously filed an IFR flight plan, and took off from my untowered home airport. On approach control's frequency, I said: Tampa Approach, Cirrus 123AB, 5 miles southeast of Tampa Exec at 1000 feet, IFR to Ft. Lauderdale Exec The approach controller responded, annoyed, saying something like "Well do you have an IFR flight plan or are you reporting IFR??" I had always used that phraseology because it seems the least wordy way to get the info across, which can be helpful when
If you fly low, air is dense so you can get more thrust from your engines, but you get more drag. On the other hand if you fly higher you have less drag but the output of engine decreases as well. So what's the optimum altitude to fly at, and how does one determine it?