If a pilot uses an electronic flight bag (say, an iPad with ForeFlight or WingX), are they required to carry paper charts as a backup?
Do different rules apply to operations under Parts 91, 121, and 135?
Typically pilots using EFBs (which need to be approved by the FAA if being used for Part 121 or 135 flights) do not need to carry paper charts if, as Steve points out, you have at least two of them. For Part 121, 135, and 91K there is usually a six month period after gaining EFB approval when the FAA requires paper backups in addition to the EFB's as a precaution.
A typical EFB program will have contingency procedures to use in the event of a failure or problem with one or more of the EFBs, and usually says that if one fails (and it can not be replaced or repaired) that you may not depart unless you have paper backups.
Yes, if you only carry one EFB, then you have to also carry paper charts as a backup.
See AC 120-76B.
a. Paper Data Removal. At least two operational EFBs are required to remove paper products that contain aeronautical charts, checklists, or other data required by the operating rules. The design of the EFB function requires that no single failure or common mode error may cause the loss of required aeronautical information.
If paper charts are "required operating information" If you would otherwise be required to carry a paper chart, then you either still have to carry one, or else carry two EFBs.
What about part 91 operators?
Aircraft operated under part 91, except for parts 91F and 91K, require no EFB authorization or compliance with this AC, provided the EFB does not replace any equipment or operating information required by the regulations.
A EFB is a legal replacement for paper charts and you are not required to carry backup if you are operating as part 91 single engine piston. Advisory Circular 120-76B is in reference to part 91F (Large and Turbine-Powered Multiengine Airplanes).
AC 91-78 is aimed at Part 91 operators, VFR or IFR and states that EFBs can be used in all phases of flight in lieu of paper.
A backup data source is suggested, but is not required. Note that this backup can be another electronic device.
I'm wondering if it is it ok to use a consumer tablet and electronic charts (e.g. within the AirNav Pro app) instead of the paper version for recreational VFR single-piston flights? Edit: to clarify, my question is indeed about official, up-to-date charts, accessed with consumer hardware (I mention AirNav Pro, but it could well be any pdf reader for that purpose) as opposed to paper medium.
If a pilot uses an electronic flight bag (say, an iPad with ForeFlight or WingX), are they required to carry paper charts as a backup? Do different rules apply to operations under Parts 91, 121, and 135?
I know that to be allowed to fly an aircraft as to be certified by an agency and that this one is not the same for European or American (for instance) aircrafts. What are the different steps that an aircraft designed to fly in Europe has to go through in order to be certified? Proof on the paper of some features? Ground tests (which one)? Flight tests (which one)?
it should suffice to say that solid-state gyros can be engineered and built in such a way that gimbal lock is impossible, but I'm not certain that's how they're actually designed. Do modern AHRS systems with solid-state gyros (or replacement electronic horizons like the RC Allen 2600 series) still suffer from gimbal lock, or do they provide true 3-dimensional freedom? I'm interested primarily in answers from a light General Aviation standpoint, but answers about electronic gyros on commuter and transport category aircraft would be interesting too.
Since an EFB is basically an iPad with the right app installed, is it possible that some sort of Plane-tablet connection could be formed (either wireless or cabled) to automate all of most of an EFB pre-flight check? or does aviation regulation not allow this? This is a purely hypothetical question since I don't think any EFB app so far supports this, let alone any plane. clarification: I'm talking about the preflight checks that ensure that everything in the cockpit is setup correctly for takeoff. I understand that an EFB is an electronic version of the 40 pounds of paper a pilot usually
There've been a lot of questions lately about tracking aircraft, and after a conversation with a friend of a friend I started wondering: Could a PLB or EPIRB carried by a passenger or crew member aid in locating a downed or missing airliner? There are a dozen or so brands out there, most using similar technology, like this ACR ARTEX unit: Now, I'm well aware of the FAA and FCC regulations about electronic devices in flight, and that's not what I'm interested in. I also realize that airliners already carry an ELT. If a paranoid passenger brought one on board, would these devices function
Due west of KLAS and Death Valley are a large number of MOAs and Restricted areas. On the sectional and terminal area charts, there are thin magenta lines snaking over some of the mountain tops. What do those lines represent? They don't seem to be a mode C veil of any sort, and the legend doesn't otherwise mention a thin magenta line without spikes.
I really appreciate skyvector.com as a tool for initial route planning and providing me with a good lookout to the upcoming VFR flight, but honestly I'm not very satisfied with the FAA Sectional charts. Using these charts navigation in some more congested areas is tough work especially as I'm not very familiar with the area yet. Its often useful to have a satellite picture of these areas to identify some helpfull landmarks, which might not be shown on the sectional. Does anyone know how to transfer the skyvector route to Google Maps, or know an alternative to achieve a similar result?
For normal sightseeing flights in a typical hot air balloon, what instruments or avionics does the pilot usually carry? Do balloons have a minimum equipment list?
Reading the requirements for MEL it is confusing which things must be done in a multi-engine, and which things carry over from SEL. If I already have SEL do I need to do a cross country in a multi-engine? Assuming I can meet the PTS for MEL, what other requirements are there?