In the olden days there used to be a navigation officer in commercial airlines who had the tasks of navigation and radio communication. But, in modern commercial airliners there is no navigation officer.
Do the pilot(s) take the additional responsibility of radio communication and navigation? Or is the navigation part now done by onboard computers and systems?
If the electronic navigation system fails, are there any backup plans? Are physical maps and a compass then used to determine the direction and position?
Navigation has gotten much simpler over the years. Initially, navigation would be done by a combination of dead reckoning, looking out the window for landmarks, and for night or long-distance flights, by celestial navigation (many old airplanes have a window at the navigator's station specifically to let the navigator see the stars). This took quite a bit of time and effort, so the pilot couldn't do it and also fly the airplane.
In the 1920s, radio navigation was added to the navigator's toolkit, but finding bearings to beacons and calculating a location was still an entirely manual process. Additionally, radio beacons didn't cover the entire world, so older navigation techniques were still needed for most flights.
In the 1950s, fully-automatic radio direction finding systems became common and navigation beacons were available across most of Europe and North America. At this point, the workload involved in navigation dropped to the point that the pilot could also navigate: plot out the sequence of NDBs to follow ahead of time, then tune the radio and follow the navigation display.
Very recently, navigation has been integrated with the autopilot to the point that the pilot can punch in a sequence of waypoints and have the airplane fly the route entirely on its own.
And yes, even today if the electronic navigation system fails, the fallback is map, compass, and slide rule.
In the olden days there used to be a navigation officer in commercial airlines who had the tasks of navigation and radio communication. But, in modern commercial airliners there is no navigation officer. Do the pilot(s) take the additional responsibility of radio communication and navigation? Or is the navigation part now done by onboard computers and systems? If the electronic navigation system fails, are there any backup plans? Are physical maps and a compass then used to determine the direction and position?
If I were to redo my avionics to only include a WAAS GPS unit and two comm radios, would anything prevent me from operating IFR? 14 CFR 91.205(d) only states that my airplane must have: (2) Two-way radio communication and navigation equipment suitable for the route to be flown. I'm aware that this is not the most bulletproof way to fly hard IFR. In this case, assume that the aircraft is primarily used for currency/proficiency and the occasional light IFR flight.
These days, when reading news about missing Malaysia Airlines Boeing 777-200, I keep coming across a scenario where pilot might have deliberately turned off the transponder which is used for the communication of flight with ATC. When there is a possibility that any bad thing can happen when pilot turn off transponder, why would one give the ability of turning off the transponder to a pilot when he/she usually depends on instructions from ATC or flight control. Is there anyway that ATC can turn on transponder back from ground?
There are various services that use world-wide Boeing Winds for forecast wind data which can be used to calculate an approximate flight time between two locations. They usually have best case, worst case, and average case for each location, altitude, and date in the future. I have searched and searched Google to no avail. Where can this wind data be found, and how can it be used in a commercial product? For those of you who don't know what the Boeing winds are, I found this description of their software product on am informal message board (not related to Boeing): PC WindTemp
I worked on Russian Fighter aircraft where both the Rudder Pedals were mechanically interlinked i.e Captain applies force on his pedal than both pedals (Captain & First Officer) move & vice versa. Single Pedal sensor Unit (of course redundant sensors) senses the position and sends it to the Fly-By-Wire Computer for moving the control surfaces. I would like to know if this is true for all aircraft (Fighter/Commercial, Boeing/Airbus, etc.) and if not, what are different implementations? Maybe different sensors for Captain/First Officer, different arch etc. Also on the same lines, how
In a recent BBC article regarding the disappearance of Malaysian Airlines Flight 370 (MH-370), the writer refers to a US Naval officer's statement: Commander William Marks from the US Seventh... that radio beacon. We have not yet picked up anything, but that's typically what those black boxes contain." I was under the (potentially incorrect) impression that flight recorders, by nature...? If so, why? I know that flight recorders are equipped with underwater locator beacons. Are they also equipped with radio beacons (either an active transmitter or a some passive device like a corner
A disadvantage of the analogue radio1 used for communication is that it does not receive when it transmits. Everybody is trained to wait until the frequency is quiet before starting to talk... radio, but digital systems seem to have more options to handle it, especially for the relatively low bandwidth requirement of voice communication. ... longer won't be aware at all and if they talk for similar time, neither may be aware. What I would like to know is how humans deal with the problem and whether there is any specific guideline
I just finished reading an interesting post where the author suggests that the missing Malaysian Airlines flight 370 could have 'hidden' under the cover of Singapore Airlines flight 68 to fly...) sounds plausible. I also read another book where a bomber (flying under the identity of a commercial jet) masked a business jet to get it into an area without detection. Naturally, both examples are taken... there might be some radio interference or static from such as large aircraft behind them? Are there every any issues when refueling aircraft do this sort of thing? What is the resolution of radar? Would one
In February 2014 a co-pilot hijacked Ethopian Airlines flight 702 and took it to Switzerland. Now in March there is some speculation that Malaysia Airlines flight 370 may have been hijacked and destroyed by the pilots - maybe they took a nose dive into the Andaman Sea? So my question is this: is there an automatic or say anti-pilot warning system on commercial airliners? In other words, a system that is non-maskable (can't be disabled by the pilot) and which will automatically warn ATC about unexpected conditions (like a sudden decrease in altitude)?
As we all know from our instrument training, the MOCA is: MINIMUM OBSTRUCTION CLEARANCE ALTITUDE (MOCA)- The lowest published altitude in effect between radio fixes on VOR airways, off-airway... of a VOR. Whereas the MEA is: MINIMUM EN ROUTE IFR ALTITUDE (MEA)- The lowest published altitude between radio fixes which assures acceptable navigational signal coverage and meets obstacle clearance requirements between those fixes. The MEA prescribed for a Federal airway or segment thereof, area navigation low or high route, or other direct route applies to the entire width of the airway