Take Afghanistan as a for instance; do governments (e.g. USAF/RAF) or NATO construct ATC towers?
I'd imagine so, at the air bases, in order to land/takeoff the vast amount of aircraft.
Who controls the sectors where missions are ongoing? How are the different countries' aircraft coordinated and kept apart?
Yes, sometimes control towers or other ATC facilities are constructed to support air traffic control. If, for example an ATC tower is needed (there was none previously or it was destroyed), a mobile replacement is used.
For mission control Airborne Warning and Control Systems (AWACS) are used:
But these are quite expensive to fly. If possible, mobile surface based radars are brought in to provide a surveillance picture.
Mobile towers, radars and navigation beacon are not solely used in war situations. In natural disasters they have proven to be useful as well:
What is the policy for ATC towers to notify aircraft the frequency they broadcast and monitor on has changed? How do they do it, if radio isn't available (because they just changed their frequency)?
Take Afghanistan as a for instance; do governments (e.g. USAF/RAF) or NATO construct ATC towers? I'd imagine so, at the air bases, in order to land/takeoff the vast amount of aircraft. Who controls the sectors where missions are ongoing? How are the different countries' aircraft coordinated and kept apart?
So the answer in my mind is "of course pilots can fly circling approaches at non-towered airports" (seriously, I could swear that I've done it before, but then again I can't think of any specific examples....). That is, until I ran across this little tidbit in the Air Traffic Control Order while researching another question: 4-8-6. CIRCLING APPROACH a. Circling approach instructions may only be given for aircraft landing at airports with operational control towers. So then the question becomes, why do they have circling minimums at non-towered airports?? No tower here. ATC
I know there are airports with more than one ATC Tower, though I only know it from my own country (SCHIPHOL - EHAM). This airport has two towers called Tower-Center and Tower-West. Tower-West is built because of a sixth runway (18R - 36L), that wasn't clearly visible from Tower-Center. (They found this out after completion of the sixth runway.) How common is it an airport decides to built a second tower, and are there a certain rules or limitations before the decision can be made? Next to that; what are the practical consequences for pilots and ATC's? Do they not only switch between startup
After purchasing an aircraft, it takes the FAA a long time to issue RVSM approval for the new owner. During this time, under what conditions may an aircraft fly in RVSM airspace even though they aren't approved for it? What is the process to get ATC approval for such flights?
and speed adjustments). I tend to notice this with bigger birds (777,747,340), however smaller regional jets almost always promptly read back. Questions: Is there an alternative way of ATC... and that's why I don't hear reply, however on approach side much bigger distances are heard in my area) Thank you I did verify that indeed the aircraft that I don't hear read back from receives... out in the question for some reason mostly it is "big" aircraft that gets this preferential treatment, but I am not 100% sure why.
I was reading a forum for professional pilots and ran across a thread on lateral offset procedures during oceanic flight (apparently having the FMS offset the aircraft from the centerline of an oceanic track). How does lateral offset work? Is it required for all oceanic aircraft or optional for some operators? Is it explicitly assigned by ATC or is it an implicit part of oceanic flight? What is its purpose, and why isn't it used in non-oceanic airspace?
With respect to mid-air collisions, how is a near miss calculated, detected, and reported? Does ATC have radar detection, or is it strictly up to pilots to report a close encounter with another aircraft?
Primary target: An aircraft not reporting mode-C, the only thing the controller has is the return on the radar. When a controller reports a primary target as traffic to other aircraft, the controller does not have the altitude of the target. Given this, I conclude that ATC radar does not have the altitude (angle-up) to the target, and only provides azimuth. So then without the altitude, how does the radar-system know where to put the target laterally on the screen? Example, a radar picks up a target that is 10 miles from the station. If the target is 0 AGL, the proper position would be 10
Was wondering if ATC can detect if aircraft is being flown manually vs. autopilot and if that affects their clearances given out for surrounding aircraft? More specifically, can they tell through ADSB signal or just by observation (holding flight level, turn rate, correction for wind, etc)? I would imagine that in high winds/bad weather non-AP operation would need to be better isolated from other aircraft?