I'm a student pilot doing all VFR flying and making flight plans for training. I've heard that most people don't file a flight plan for VFR outside of training though, and instead request "flight following" from nearby ATC.
When can I do this in flight? Which ATC can do this for me?
You may request flight following anytime, pre-certificate and after. My CFI required me to request FF while on my student solos - and sometimes ATC is too busy to grant that service, so don't be too surprised if you are turned down. It is always based on a workload permitted basis by ATC.
Another tip - while you are a student pilot, always identify yourself as a student in your flight following request. ATC does in fact go out of their way to assist students.
Nowhere is this written down, but I would not request FF for a very short flight. To me that is just annoying to the controller. But that may just be me.
As SkipMiller said, you can basically request flight following at any time and any certificate level - student, sport pilot, private pilot - the service is available to anyone.
We're told that FF is "workload permitting".
I used to think that meant they'd give you services when they can. But I was wrong about that. Instead, once they accept you, you're in the system, and get full services. If they get too busy, they'll tell you and kick you out of the system. ("Radar Services Terminated; Squawk VFR")
FF depends on radar services. When flying rather low and near mountains, its easy for them to lose you.
As for when you should request it: You can request it at anytime.
Personally, I wouldn't be in a hurry to request it as soon as you depart. Wait until you're established on course, in a cruise-attitude (instead of a climb), and everything is settled and running smoothly. Then know your position, and how you're going to report it. Know where you're going (both by name and ICAO identifier), and try to anticipate any questions they might ask.
Look for the Center/Approach/Depature where you are (look in your AF/D for an airport close to you), and call up with:
You: "Seattle Center; November 12345: VFR, with request"
translation: Calling Seattle Center, this is N12345. I'm VFR (so you haven't heard from me before... don't be surprised!), and I have a request.
Center: "November 12345: Say request."
You: "November 12345 is SkyHawk, 10 mi. South of Harvey Field, 4,500 feet. Request VFR Flight Following to Friday Harbor"
translation: I'm a Cessna Skyhawk, my location and altitude will help you find me. I'm asking for FF to this other airport."
Center: "N345: Squawk 4532 and Ident."
You: (Set your transponder to 4532, press the Identify Button), and say "4532 and Ident, N345"
Center: "N345: Radar Contact, 11 mi. south of Sierra Four Tree, at 4,500. Traffic at your 1o'clock, 5 mi. North Bound, Altitude indicates 3,000."
translation: I found you on my radar scope, and am describing the position I see you. (If you disagree, speak up!). You have traffic ahead and slightly to your right. Their transponder indicates 3,000 feet, but I cannot independently verify that.
Since a student pilot posed the query, here are some various thoughts based on my experience with FF. I'm a low-time VFR pilot (500 hours). I rarely make short flights; mostly cc for 1-3 hours. (I wouldn't typically use FF for a 30-min hop). I consider FF a HUGE privilege that could easily be taken away if enough GA pilots abuse it, neglect it, or don't take it seriously.
I always use FF at night. I highly recommend that. I do a lot of night flying.
If I'm flying thru or even near Charlie airspace by day, I use FF near and thru that region.
If I'm flying near or thru Bravo airspace by day, I use FF for the entire flight.
I have never been refused for FF. Maybe it required a 2nd request a few times, but never refused.
Make sure your transponder is kept in good working order and calibrated according to your AD once you get your own plane. If there is an issue with your transponder, FF may ask you to ident, and if they still can't establish a fix on you, they may ask you to recycle your transponder (turn it off, give it 5 seconds, turn it back on, let it re-set.) Never do this unless asked or without asking their permission. You drop off their radar completely for several seconds, and if they're not expecting it they'll rightfully freak.
It's very easy to miss a call from FF if you're talking with your passengers. I inform my passengers that I'm using FF and I either need to isolate myself or limit discussion. Most of my passengers love to hear the ATC chatter.
Don't refuse a "request" from a controller unless it creates a safety concern. For example, I've been kindly requested to veer around a busy corridor near Louisville at 11 pm when UPS has taken over the airport. (Why would I say no?) Understand if you're not in the corridor or in the airspace, FF will "request" rather than "demand." Tell them you'd be happy to. It will probably cost you 90 seconds. Remember you're the smallest guy they're watching. Respect that!!
Whenever you hear your tail number called, put your right hand on the frequency dial before they say the next word. Nothing annoys FF more than low time VFR pilots asking two or three times to repeat a frequency when they are handing you off to the next sector.
Learn which FF calls MUST be answered and which don't. You'll probably learn mostly by trial and error, but you can get in far more trouble by saying nothing than by offering a quick, "937 Affirm." When they say, "937, traffic at 10 O'clock, 7,000 feet. No factor." you don't have to reply ... but why not? "937 Roger." It's a lot like being reassured that your teenager didn't fall asleep in the middle of a conversation.
I never fail to affirm a frequency change on a handoff ... I don't necessarily read back the new frequency ... just "937 Affirm. G'night." If they go looking for you, they have reason to be annoyed. I've been the "annoyer" before.
Always help a controller who is asking you to help find a missing pilot. They'll love you for it. (If you ID yourself as a student, they likely won't pick you to ask for help) That's reason #267 to always keep a pen handy ... a semi-panicking controller who says, "937, can you do me a favor? Go to 123.475 and see if you can find N654 Mike Papa. He never terminated radar coverage and we can't find him." It happens. More than you'd think. Drives the controllers crazy.
ALWAYS advise on your altitude changes. They'll usually say, "Maintain VFR and advise of any altitude changes." Again, it will drive them nuts if you start a descent without advising. When you advise, they will always verify and usually thank you.
If you're using an intermediate waypoint such as an airport or VOR, let FF know it if it's far enough off of a direct route to your destination airport that it could cause some confusion. 04º ... don't bother. 25º ... bother. Same goes for deviating around weather. Chances are they'll let you know of the approaching weather before you see it, but do all you can to make their job easy. Beat 'em to the punch and they'll appreciate it.
Once I'm within 15 miles or so of my destination airport, I often get the feeling that FF is reeeeally wishing I'd terminate radar so they can get rid of me ... but since a lot of confusion and bad things can happen on approach, don't terminate FF earlier than you feel comfortable. They'll want you to tell them you have the weather and the field in sight when you terminate. Whether it's legal, proper, assumed, or otherwise, when you advise, "Indy Service, N937 has the Indy Metro weather and field in sight" they will immediately respond with their "termination" spiel. By day, I typically do this 8-10 miles out. By night, especially with any weather, rarely before 5-6 miles out. When you start flying RNAV/GPS or ILS approaches, that's usually the intermediate approach fix.
Is there a map I can refer to in order to pick up the correct frequency for VFR flight following while enroute? I know I can request a frequency from ATC as I depart, but what if I want to fly around and do sight seeing, practice maneuver for my checkride etc. for a while, then pick up flight following for the remainder of the trip?
on the ground/view of rwy)? c). other? BTW: I did read How do you request a "pop up" IFR clearance? . In my scenario I have the time to call FSS, there is no emergency, I'm on flight following...Hi – Here’s the scenario: The flight starts night VFR, with broken ceiling at destination (class C airspace) and expected to improve according to the pre-flight abbreviated briefing. I'm IFR...): a). do I ask approach directly for the IFR clearance, and what is the officially sanctionned phraseology? Also: do I have to cancel IFR when I’m on the ground/see the runway i.e. is the clearance
I'm a student pilot doing all VFR flying and making flight plans for training. I've heard that most people don't file a flight plan for VFR outside of training though, and instead request "flight following" from nearby ATC. When can I do this in flight? Which ATC can do this for me?
If ATC gives me a clearance to cross a fix at a specific altitude or a descent at pilot's discretion and I read back the clearance, is my readback considered the report specified in the AIM, or do I have to inform them when I actually start down? AIM 5-3-3. Additional Reports a. The following reports should be made to ATC or FSS facilities without a specific ATC request: 1. At all... 100 NM from Wilmington VOR and gets the following clearance: ATC: N1234, cross Wilmington VOR at flight level 240 Pilot: Cross Wilmington VOR at flight level 240, N1234 or ATC: N1234
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