If you fly low, air is dense so you can get more thrust from your engines, but you get more drag.
On the other hand if you fly higher you have less drag but the output of engine decreases as well.
So what's the optimum altitude to fly at, and how does one determine it?
The optimum altitude depends on your aircraft, the engines and the weather. But most important is to decide what you are trying to achieve. If you would like to optimize your fuel consumption per distance travelled, the altitude you will fly at will be higher than if you try to optimize your fuel consumption per time unit.
Fuel per distance travelled is usually better at altitude, while fuel flow per time unit is lower at lower altitudes. In other words, if you want to go far, fly high. If you want to keep flying long, fly low.
Winds play an important role as well. If you have a strong headwind high up, you might go further staying low.
There is quite some difference between reciprocating engines and jet / turbine engines here. The former perform better at lower altitudes, while the latter do just fine until much higher.
Another factor in the decision to fly low or high: turbulence. How important is it to you and your passengers to have a smooth ride? Higher is generally less turbulent but check those Airmets and Pireps!
If you fly low, air is dense so you can get more thrust from your engines, but you get more drag. On the other hand if you fly higher you have less drag but the output of engine decreases as well. So what's the optimum altitude to fly at, and how does one determine it?
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