When flying an airplane that requires more than one crew member, does the SIC need to be landing current and instrument current, or is this a requirement only for the PIC?
Does it matter which regulations that you are operating under (Part 91, 121, or 135)?
This is a compilation of what I could find relevant to the question. Feel free to come up with corrections if I missed anything (I'm an EASA FCL guy)
Co-pilot Landing Currency:
Co-pilot Instrument Currency:
Following is the list of relevant FARs :
(b) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, no person may serve as a second in command of an aircraft type certificated for more than one required pilot flight crewmember or in operations requiring a second in command unless that person has within the previous 12 calendar months:
(2) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, performed and logged pilot time in the type of aircraft or in a flight simulator that represents the type of aircraft for which second-in-command privileges are requested, which includes --
(i) Three takeoffs and three landings to a full stop as the sole manipulator of the flight controls;
(d) This section does not apply to a person who is:[...operating part 121,125,135...]
(e) The holder of a commercial or airline transport pilot certificate with the appropriate category and class rating is not required to meet the requirements of paragraph (b)(2) of this section, provided the pilot: [... is not carrying paying passengers...]
(a) General experience.
(1) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, no person may act as a pilot in command of an aircraft carrying passengers or of an aircraft certificated for more than one pilot flight crewmember unless that person has made at least three takeoffs and three landings within the preceding 90 days, [...]
(c) Instrument experience.
Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, no person may act as pilot in command under IFR or in weather conditions less than the minimums prescribed for VFR, unless within the preceding 6 calendar months, that person has: [...6 approaches, holdings, intercepting &tracking course...]
(a) [...] no certificate holder may use any person, nor may any person serve, as second in command of an aircraft unless that person holds at least a commercial pilot certificate with appropriate category and class ratings and an instrument rating. For flight under IFR, that person must meet the recent instrument experience requirements of part 61 of this chapter.
This is an excerpt from an FAA Legal Interpretation concerning 135.245:
Next, unlike a PIC, an SIC's qualification to operate an aircraft under IFR in part 135 service is not dependent on compliance with § 135.297. Rather, § 135.245 sets the qualifications for pilots serving as SIC in part 135 operations. It states that a pilot must meet the instrument experience requirements of part 61 to serve as SIC in flight under IFR. Section 61.57(c) sets out the recent instrument flight experience requirements which include, among other things, six instrument approaches within the previous six months. See Legal Interpretation to Gerald Naekel, from Donald P. Byrne, Assistant Chief Counsel Regulations and Enforcement Division (June 18, 1991) (noting that although the section title refers to pilots in command, the instrument recency requirements of that section apply to SICs).
(a) No certificate holder may use any person, nor may any person serve, as pilot in command of an aircraft carrying passengers unless, within the preceding 90 days, that person has—
(1) Made three takeoffs and three landings as the sole manipulator of the flight controls in an aircraft of the same category and class and, if a type rating is required, of the same type in which that person is to serve; or [...]
(c)Recurrent training. (1) No certificate holder may use any person nor may any person serve as a required crewmember on an airplane unless, within the preceding 12 calendar months -- (i) For flight crewmembers, he has satisfactorily completed recurrent ground and flight training for that airplane and crewmember position and a flight check as applicable;
(a) No certificate holder may use any person nor may any person serve as a required pilot flight crewmember, unless within the preceding 90 days, that person has made at least three takeoffs and landings in the type airplane in which that person is to serve.
FCL is very clear about it: PIC and co-pilot both need to be landing current. If holding an IR rating then specific night currency is not required. No instrument currency is required as long as the IR is valid.
FCL.060 Recent experience
(b) Aeroplanes, helicopters, powered-lift, airships and sailplanes. A pilot shall not operate an aircraft in commercial air transport or carrying passengers:
(1) as PIC or co-pilot unless he/she has carried out, in the preceding 90 days, at least 3 take-offs, approaches and landings in an aircraft of the same type or class or an FFS representing that type or class. The 3 take-offs and landings shall be performed in either multi-pilot or single-pilot operations, depending on the privileges held by the pilot; and
(2) as PIC at night unless he/she:
(i) has carried out in the preceding 90 days at least 1 take-off, approach and landing at night as a pilot flying in an aircraft of the same type or class or an FFS representing that type or class; or
(ii) holds an IR;
Part 135 instrument currency in a Jet aircraft requiring two pilots, requires both pilots to be instrument current. But how about the same situation for a Part 91 flight? Does the SIC need to have his 6 approaches with tracking, intercepting, holding etc... in the last 6 months?
of the stick will command a certain rate, releasing it will make the system maintain the current attitude. See the Airbus Normal control law. direct control: a deflection of the yoke will directly translate to a deflection of the surfaces, mimicking the "old" mechanical control setup. It is my understanding that this is the design choice of Boeing in its new aircrafts. I do not wish to discuss... or Airbus/Boeing certified pilots or even pure civil/(former) military pilots. Does any of you have any reference?
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Last August during a certification flight, a Cessna 182JT-A compression-ignition (diesel) engine failed in flight. I've been Googling to find the cause of the failure and the status of the certification process but have failed to find any recent info. Does anyone know what the current findings have been and how Cessna expects to proceed?
When flying an airplane that requires more than one crew member, does the SIC need to be landing current and instrument current, or is this a requirement only for the PIC? Does it matter which regulations that you are operating under (Part 91, 121, or 135)?
14 CFR 61.55 says: ... (d) A person may receive a second-in-command pilot type rating for an aircraft after satisfactorily completing the second-in-command familiarization training requirements under paragraph (b) of this section in that type of aircraft provided the training was completed within the 12 calendar months before the month of application for the SIC pilot type rating. The person must comply with the following application and pilot certification procedures: ... (6) The applicant must appear in person at a FAA Flight Standards District Office
The FAA offers instrument approach procedures on their website free of charge, and EASA does too. Does Canada have them online for us to use?
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According to Airbus: ‐ After the flight crew selects reverse thrust, they must perform a full stop landing. Does it really make sense to have this limitation, and why? What happens if you realise there's not enough space to land, and you've still got adequate speed?